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La versione italiana di questa sezione e in preparazione. Adesso Lei puo vederla in inglese
The review of the Russian market of fruit

The review of the Russian market of fruit

The Russian market of fruit is characterized by the steady tendency to growth. Rates of increase of volume of the market make about 15 % per one year, mainly growth of the market is carried out due to increase of import deliveries of fruit. The capacity of the Russian market of fruit makes hardly less than 6 million tons, about 50 % of fruit is imported from the countries of near and distant foreign countries (http: // www.wps.ru/ru/pp/food/2004/03/24.html). According to one market from leaders, company JFC, the volume of the Russian fruit market makes 5,7 billion US dollars per one year.

On standard items to Russia import fruit have overtaken former " a national product " - chicken okorochka. The Russian market of fruit becomes object of steadfast attention of analysts and potential investors. Players of the market in conditions of active growth of demand for production consider(examine) variants for the further development, result the business in conformity to new, civilized standards (http: // www.multifruit.ru/article/economica/rrt f.html). In opinion of experts, in the near future the Russian fruit branch serious changes expect in connection with the introduction into an active phase of process of consolidation of forces, replacement from the market of fine and unreliable players. For last three - five years the share of fruit in a grocery basket of Russians has essentially increased. In Russia consumption of fruit is characterized by the tendency to growth, as against the majority of the countries of the Western Europe where recession of consumption of fruit is observed, thus about saturation of the Russian market to speak early. Dynamics(changes) of growth of consumption of fruit is expressed in the majority of the Russian regions.

Ocновными the factors influencing dynamics(changes) of the market, act a price level on fruit and well-being of the population, as the indicator of the general(common) consumer ability. Also significant influence on dynamics(changes) of the market of fruit in Russia is rendered with factors of seasonal prevalence and quality of fruit (see. The Russian food market / Russian Food and Drinks Market, 2005. № 3). In connection with a significant share of import the Russian fruit market rather important value gets activity of domestic importers of fruit. Among suppliers in the Russian fruit market three Petersburg companies are in the lead: Sunway Traders, "SORUS" and JFC International. these companies have reached(achieved) especially appreciable achievements regarding deliveries of bananas. The volume of the banana market of the country makes, by expert estimations, not less than 750 million dollars per one year. In opinion of importers, " the banana boom " in Russia is connected first of all by that is cheap fruit: In Russia his(its) price including and charges on transportation thousand of kilometers, and cost of cargo handling works, and payment of all customs payments, does not exceed one US dollar.

On a share of " the Petersburg three " companies it is necessary about 80 % imported on territory of Russia of bananas. Share JFC International in total amount of banana import makes about 30 %, on other positions - to oranges, apples, pears – the share of this importer changes from 20 up to 25 % (see figure 1). Company " СОРУС " borrows(occupies) about 20 % of the fruit market of Russia. Share Sunway Traders surpasses a share of two described companies, coming nearer to 30 % (http: // www.businesspress.ru/newspaper/article_ mId_39_aId_138472.html) a little.

Figure 1.
Shares of the basic importers in the Russian market of fruit, %


Source: http: // www.businesspress.ru/newspaper/article_ mId_39_aId_138472.html

One of conducting operators of the Russian fruit market, company Sunway, in the recent past has formed the international holding, having provided thus amplification(strengthening) of own positions in the market in Russia. In 2004 holding Sunway Group in which structure have come five companies providing development of specialized directions and projects was formed: Open Company " Sanvej groups ", Open Company " Агролайн ", Open Company " Русагро ", SWT Trader S.A. (Ecuador), Sunway Traders Beijing (China). Other step to amplification(strengthening) of positions in the Russian market for company Sunway became construction of the fruit terminal in settlement Shushary near Saint Petersburg on the area in 3 hectares.

In structure of the Russian import of fruit the greatest volumes fall to three kinds of production: bananas, apples and oranges (see figure 2). These priorities in many respects reflect consumer preferences of Russians. In structure of import superiority(championship) belongs to bananas that is connected to popularity which bananas at Russians use – on preference and frequency of consumption this fruit is the second after apples, and also that fact, that bananas are extremely import goods whereas the great demand on apples is in part satisfied with local manufacture.

Figure 2.
Structure of import of fruit to Russia by kinds of fruit, % from volume of import natural expression in 2004 (according to company AC Nielsen)


Source: the Russian food market / Russian Food and Drinks Market, 2005. № 3.

It is necessary to note, that an above mentioned share of import fruit in the Russian market, the component of 50 %, in opinion of some experts, is underestimated. In particular, according to Andrey Jarmaka, the project head of fruit-and-vegetable business " Agroogljad: vegetables and fruit ", the share of fruit and berries of a domestic production in the Russian fruit market in 2007 has decreased to 20 % - only each fifth fruit consumed by Russians, is brought up in Russia. The share of import fruit in the markets of Saint Petersburg and Moscow is even lower. Within the nearest five years growth of volumes of import of fruit in the Russian Federation will outstrip growth of volumes of internal manufacture in this connection the share of traditional Russian fruit in consumption can decrease to 10 % (http: // www.webagro.net/news.php? id=77728*cat=potat).

The basic share of the fruit officially imported to Russia, is delivered in the Petersburg port (about 80 %), the fifth part of deliveries falls to port in Novorossisk (20 %) (see figure 3).

Figure 3.
Structure of deliveries of fruit to Russia, % from standard item


Source: http: // www.businesspress.ru/newspaper/article_ mId_39_aId_138472.html

Experts express opinion, that in many respects popularity of the Petersburg port became the reason of leadership of the Petersburg companies - importers in the Russian fruit market. These companies started with trade in the markets, now becoming(beginning) the large modern companies which use high technologies of storage and transportation of fruit and practically have no in the country of legal competitors, competing mainly with structures of shadow fruit business. In the near future development of the Petersburg companies – leading importers of fruit in Russia, will proceed in connection with active growth of consumption of fruit in Russia.
One of the basic problems of the Russian importers of fruit is connected to customs rules and payments. Representatives of the companies mark, that in mutual relation with customs house there is a weight of the problems connected, in particular, with bribery, high duties and taxes. These problems essentially brake development of the fruit market, do(make) fruit less accessible to the end user because of high margins.
Weight of tax burden on import of fruit, in particular, has caused significant volume of shadow sector in this sphere. According to experts, about third of modern Russian market of fruit "grey" importers - about 35 % of the market of vegetables supervise and fruit counterfeit production makes of the countries of Asia which is imported under documents of firms - somethings ephemeral with understating weight or cost. For updating existing position one of leaders of the market – company JFC, together with Rossel'hoznadzorom the Russian Federation in 2005 have prepared the reference(manipulation) in the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation which key item(point) concerns introduction of obligatory state licensing of all participants of the fruit-and-vegetable market. Besides founders of the reference(manipulation) insisted on that at customs house the rigid control above a parity(ratio) of the declared and real volumes of the imported goods was established.
On calculations of authors of the reference(manipulation), licensing will allow to increase incomes of the state budget of import of vegetables and fruit by 200 million US dollars per one year. It is necessary to notice, that a number(line) of players of the fruit market regards initiative JFC as attempt prolobbirovat' interests of large importers and to supersede from the market the small companies. Experts in JFC agree that in case of introduction of licenses for import of fruit-and-vegetable production the quantity(amount) of its(her) importers will be reduced in some times. A major factor of reduction of number of players owe replacement from the market of the companies importing the goods under "grey" circuits (http: // www.webagro.net/news.php? id=77728*cat=potat). For the Russian market of fruit a problem the significant amount of pesticides and nitrates in imported fruit is actual. In particular, even the random inspections of the fruit-and-vegetable bases which have been carried out(spent) Rossel'hoznadzorom, have found out tens tons of vegetables and fruit, the level of pesticides in which harmful& to health.
In May of current year Rossel'hoznadzor has prevented attempt of import to Russia several parties(sets) of apples and the vegetables of the Polish manufacture containing pesticides and nitrates. In two parties(sets) of apples in gross weight of 38 tons residual quantities(amounts) of pesticide karbendazim, not allowable in apples according to the Russian legislation (http: // www.webagro.net/news.php were found out? id=68794*cat=potat).

Discrepancy of production of fruit to the international standards of food safety was the reason on which in 2005 Rossel'hoznadzor has given out an interdiction on import to Russia to fruit-and-vegetable production from Moldova. In 2006 the agreement on renewal of deliveries, but with the big clauses was accepted: Moldova could export only the staying fruit from the last crop; all production should pass through unique customs item(point) in Brichanah; the Russian experts within one month observed of growth of the future crop and supervised work local fitosanitarnyh services. Only in 2007 Rossel'hoznadzor and the Ministry of Agriculture and the foodstuffs of Moldova have come to an agreement about renewal of deliveries to Russia of vegetables and fruit in full (http: // www.my-gb.ru/articles.php? n=93*c=18*a=3752*l=246; (http: // www.fontanka.ru/2007/04/12/005/print.ht ml).

Characteristic feature of the Russian market of fruit is expressiveness of a seasonal rise in prices. In particular, according to analytical service of a weekly journal " Agroogljad: vegetables and fruit ", in the current year the seasonal rise in prices on a commodity apple has made about 1,0-1,5 roubles / kg or about 5-7 % for one week. To one of major factors of a rise in prices on a commodity apple began reduction of the offer of qualitative production of the Russian manufacture. According to participants of the market, the most qualitative goods are already incorporated in storehouses, and the prices for import production on the average in 1,5-2 times are higher, than on the Russian apple (http: // www.webagro.net/news.php? id=79082*cat=potat).
Concerning priority formats of sales of fruit in the Russian market it is necessary to note, that, according to results of researches of company AC Nielsen, on the average about 70 % of fruit in Russia are sold on wholesale bases and the markets. In many respects it is connected by that in the markets fruit, as a rule, more cheaply, than in food shops and supermarkets. Also the choice of consumers is influenced with the usual representation about "quality" of the fruit offered in the market. The opinion is distributed, that for the account of shorter logistical chain fruit in the market appear fresher, than production sold in food shops and supermarkets. Also among the Russian consumers purchase of fruit from a tray or from the machine, in boothes and stalls is distributed. These formats use the greatest preference at consumers in cities with the population from 100 thousand inhabitants. The basic advantages of boothes and stalls are convenience of an arrangement – affinity to a route of moving of the consumer, – and also efficiency of purchase (see. The Russian food market / Russian Food and Drinks Market, 2005. № 3).

Despite of existing tendencies, experts believe, that the format of "store" trade in fruit has significant potential. That fact, in particular, testifies to it, that the share of supermarkets in a retail revolution of fresh fruit though and slowly, but grows. Regular visitors of supermarkets and gipermarketov are inclined to combine purchase of fruit with purchase of other goods with a view of economy of time and avoidance of the discomfort connected to visiting of the markets.
According to results of researches, Russians spend for vegetables and fruit not less than 11 % from total amount of charges on the grocery goods. On the average consumption of fruit in Russia in calculation on the person makes about 34 kg of fruit at recommended norm about 100 kg per one year. The average American consumes 126 kg, avstraliets - 135 kg, kitaets - 50 kg. Among various segments of the fruit market in Russia demand is greatest on the bananas being absolute leaders of sales. As experts of company JFC mark, for last two years consumption of bananas has increased twice. However even the segment of bananas keeps significant potential. On one Russian it is necessary 4,5-5 kg of bananas in one year whereas in the countries of the East Europe srednedushevoe consumption of bananas is twice more, making 8-10 kg per one year (http: // www.wps.ru/ru/pp/food/2004/03/24.html). The exotic fruit most popular in Russia - pineapple. On his(its) share it is necessary more than 70 % from total amount of import of fruit exotic. The least known in Russia are pitajja, lichchi, karambola, durian and rambutan. The share of exotic fruit makes 3 % of cumulative cost of fruit import.
Fruit take the important place in a grocery basket of urban population of Russia. They are on the second place in a number of all products consumed in domestic conditions and on the first place among products, consumed outside of a house. Consumption of fruit is in the lead among ways to have a bite in domestic conditions, this product wins first place, outstripping chocolate, yoghurt, kefir, cottage cheese and even sandwiches, pies and sausages in the test.
Researches of company AC Nielsen testify that more than half of inhabitants of the Russian cities consumes fruit even once a day – 69 % in the years(summer) period and 55 % in the winter period. In consumption of fruit the factor of seasonal prevalence is expressed - in the winter period (since November till April) the share of those who consumes fruit with frequency once a week and less often (from 9 % in the summer up to 16 % in the winter) considerably grows. In a years(summer) season (since May till October) it is increased a share of consumers, which eat fruit some times per day (from 22 % in the winter up to 37 % in the summer) (see. The Russian food market / Russian Food and Drinks Market, 2005. № 3).
By kinds of fruit in structure of consumption at Russians apples are in the lead. Results of research of company AC Nielsen testify what this kind of fruit of 51 % of inhabitants of the Russian cities consumes more often (see table 1). It is remarkable, that these results miss the data, resulted(brought) experts JFC according to whom in structure of consumption of fruit at Russians bananas are in the lead. Bananas consume 23 % of inhabitants of the Russian cities, oranges – 11 % of city dwellers more often; lemons are priority fruit for 6 % of Russians; tangerines – for 2 %; pears – for 4 % of city dwellers. The highest frequency of consumption is characteristic for apples: with summer of them eat not less often than once a week 89 %, and in the winter – 80 % of inhabitants of the Russian cities. Thus only 25 % of consumers count apples the favourite fruit.

Table 1.
Preferences of the Russian consumers by kinds of fruit, % from number of consumers among inhabitants of cities with the population from 100 thousand chel. (according to company AC Nielsen)

Fruit

Prefer **

Eat to a thicket всего*

Fur-trees for last 6 months **

Apples

25

51

96

Bananas

18

23

92

Oranges

12

11

91

Lemons

2

6

82

Tangerines

4

2

70

Pears

9

4

61

Grapes

7

1

42

Kivi

2

1

39

Pomegranates

1

-

31

Grapefruits

2

1

30

Pineapples

2

-

27

Fresh berries

3

-

16

Peaches

6

-

13

Plums

1

-

12

Apricots

3

-

10

Water-melons, melons

4

-

7

Mango

1

-

5


* - at an opportunity to choose only one variant of the answer
** - at an opportunity to choose some variants of the answer.
Source: the Russian food market / Russian Food and Drinks Market, 2005. № 3.

Comparison of preferences and volumes of consumption of various fruit consumers in Russia and the European countries, testifies that the Russian market is most similar with Czech where also in the big honour apples. Bananas appear the most favourite fruit at northern peoples – inhabitants of Norway, Finland, Sweden whereas in the countries of Southern Europe – Italy, Spain, France – citrus and pears use the greatest popularity.

The basic conclusions on results of the review:
■ the Russian market of fruit is characterized by the steady tendency to growth which rates make about 15 % per one year. According to one market from leaders, company JFC, the volume of the Russian fruit market makes 5,7 billion US dollars per one year.
■ In the Russian market of fruit the share of import is great. The fruit imported from other countries, make about 50 % from volume of the Russian market, thus, in opinion of some experts, the share of import is much higher, making about 80 %.
■ Among suppliers of fruit in the Russian market three Petersburg companies are in the lead: Sunway Group, "SORUS" and JFC International. On share Sunway it is necessary about 30 % of deliveries of fruit to Russia, share JFC International makes 20-25 %, the share of company " СОРУС " makes about 20 % from standard item.
■ In structure of the Russian import of fruit the greatest volumes fall to three kinds of production: bananas (27 %), apples (22 %) and oranges (14 %).
■ the Basic share of the fruit officially imported to Russia, is delivered in the Petersburg port (about 80 %), the fifth part of deliveries falls to port in Novorossisk.
■ Characteristic feature of the Russian market of fruit is expressiveness of a seasonal rise in prices. In the current year the seasonal rise in prices on a commodity apple has made about 1,0-1,5 roubles / kg or about 5-7 % for one week.
■ Russians spend for vegetables and fruit not less than 11 % from total amount of charges on the grocery goods. More than half of inhabitants of the Russian cities consumes fruit even once a day – 69 % in the years(summer) period and 55 % in the winter period.
■ By kinds of fruit in structure of consumption at Russians apples are in the lead. Results of research of company AC Nielsen testify what this kind of fruit of 51 % of inhabitants of the Russian cities consumes more often. Bananas consume 23 % of inhabitants of the Russian cities, oranges – 11 % of city dwellers more often.

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